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Thermal Coke

Thermal coal, also known as steam coal, is used for power and heat generation. In electricity generation, thermal coal is ground to a powder and fired into a boiler to produce heat, which in turn converts water into steam. The steam powers a turbine coupled to an alternator, which generates electricity for the power grid. The steam cools down as it turns the turbine generator and is condensed back to pure water, and the process repeats. In modern coal plants, the steam is kept at extreme temperatures and pressures at all times to increase the efficiency of the power plant.


Our coal trading business is spearheaded by a team of experienced personnel owning strong local expertise and well-developed relationships across the coal value chain from the ground up to the end-buyer.

We source our thermal coal directly from a selected number of Russian, South African and Indonesia’s largest and most well-established coal producers. We serve coal users in Europe, Middle East and Asia operating across various industries, with a primary focus on GCC countries which is one of the world’s largest coal user of thermal coal area.

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  • ADB - Air-Dried Basis
    In coal sample analysis, ADB neglects the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures.
  • ARB - As-Received Basis
    In coal sample analysis, ARB puts all variables into consideration and uses the total weight as the basis of measurement. ARB is the most widely used basis in industrial applications. Ash content - Ash content is the non-combustible residue that remains after coal is burnt. Ash reduces handling and burning capacity, affects combustion efficiency and boiler efficiency and therefore increases handling costs.
  • ASTM
    American Society for Testing and Materials
  • GAR - Gross As Received
    Thermal coal is quoted on a GAR basis, except for Europe/ARA, Richards Bay 6,000 kcal/kg, and Japan and Korea West CIF, which are quoted on a NAR (Net As Received) basis. Fixed carbon - Fixed carbon is the solid combustible residue that remains in the furnace after volatile matter is distilled off, comprised mostly of carbon but also containing some hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen not driven off with the gases. It provides a rough estimate of the heating value of coal.
  • HGI
    The relative ease with which coal can be pulverized depends on the strength of the coal and is measured by the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). This empirical test indicates how difficult it would be to grind a specific coal to the particle size necessary for effective combustion in a pulverized coal fired boiler.
  • Inherent moisture
    Inherent moisture (or bed moisture) means moisture that exists as an integral part of the coal seam in its natural state, including water in pores, but excluding that present in macroscopically visible fractures.
  • Sulphur
    Sulphur content in coal presents problems with utilization and resultant pollution, as it causes corrosion and fouling of boiler tubes, and atmospheric pollution when released in flue gases.
  • Total moisture
    Total moisture in coal is represented by measuring weight loss from aggressive drying in an air atmosphere under rigidly controlled conditions of temperature, time and air flow. The presence of moisture is an important factor in both the storage and the utilization of coal, as it adds unnecessary weight during transportation, reduces the calorific value, and poses some handling problems.
  • Volatile matter
    Volatile matter is the material that is driven off when coal is heated to 950 °C in the absence of air under specified conditions. It consists of a mixture of gases, low-boiling-point organic compounds that condense into oils upon cooling, and tars. In general, coals with high volatile-matter content ignite easily and are highly reactive in combustion applications.
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